The Influence of Modern Western Philosophers on Iqbāl

Document Type : Research Paper


Associate Professor, University of Tehran, Iran


Muhammad Iqbal’s cultural, literary, and philosophical influence on the Indian subcontinent, especially his impact on the events that led to the birth of the state of Pakistan cannot be denied.  Prior to visiting Europe, Iqbāl had gained profound understanding of Islamic teachings.  While in Europe, he acquired deep knowledge of Western scholarship and was also exposed to Western philosophical thought, which he acquired from his Western mentors.  He synthesized these two worldviews in his own work and thought.  The principle concept in Iqbal’s thought is the idea of the self, which he gleaned not only from Islamic sources but also from the works of philosophers such as Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, and Bergson.  This paper addresses the influence of these European philosophers on the development of Iqbal’s thought.


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