Thinking Towards Peace: On Triades and New Cosmology of the Mesocosm

Document Type : Research Paper


Institute for Philosophical Studies, Slovenia


This paper has three parts. In the first part, we bring to the fore an ancient Vedic concept of mesocosm and discuss its religious and cosmic significance within Indian religion. This part also brings an initial approach towards philosophy of spirituality by focusing on the role of breath within the very concept of mesocosm. In the second part, based on our preliminary analysis, we present an original account on triades and Trinitarian thinking in some of the religious traditions by discussing the following questions: (1) What does the triade as a concept bring to theology and religious studies? (2) How could it be understood as a form, representing the most perfect model for the sacred correlation between divine and for the human Being? (3) How is it related to the idea of the “Third Presence,” the relational link between One and Two as primeval ontological realms? In the third and concluding part, we return to the ancient Indoeuropean religion by discussing the mediatory role of the Indo-Iranian Mit(h)ra.


Boland, M. 1997. Die Wind-Atem-Lehre in den älteren Upanisaden. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag.
Caputo, J. D. 2013. The Insistence of God: A Theology of Perhaps. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Golema, M. 2013. “Slavic Mitra. Benevolent and Legal Pole of the Function of Religious Sovereignty in the Slavic Mythology and Epic.” Studia Mythologica Slavica XVI: 81–104.
Heidegger, M. 1996. Hölderlin’s Hymn “The Ister.” Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann.
Irigaray, L. 2004. Key writings. London: Bloomsbury.
Kramer, S. N. 1965. “Sumerian Theology and Ethics.” The Harvard Theological Review 49(1): 45–62.
Levy, Robert I., and Kedar Rāj Rājopādhyāya. 1990. Mesocosm: Hinduism and the Organization of a Traditional Newar City of Nepal. Berkeley: Univesity of California Press.
Mbiti, J. 1969. African Religion and Philosophy. New York: Praeger.
Ogbonnaya, A. O. 1994. An African Interpretation of the Trinity. New York: Paragon House.
Ollivele, P., trans. 1996. Upaniads. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Phan, P. C., ed.. 2011. The Trinity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Plato. 1997. Complete Works. Edited by J. M. Cooper. Indianapolis: Cambridge Hackett Publishing.
Plotinus. 1991. The Enneads. Translated by S. MacKenna. London: Penguin.
Schneider, L. C. 2008. Beyond Monotheism: A Theology of Multiplicity. London: Routledge. 
Škof, L. 2005. “Tri vprašanja o afriški filozofiji.” Filozofski vestnik 3: 171–86.
———. 2015. Breath of Proximity: Intersubjectivy, Ethics and Peace. Dordrecht: Springer.
Škof, L., and E. A. Holmes, eds. 2013. Breathing with Luce Irigaray. London: Bloomsbury.
Thieme, P. 1957. “Mitra and Aryaman.” Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 41: 1–96.
Tonstad, L. M. 2016. God and Difference: The Trinity, Sexuality, and the Transformation of Finitude. New York and London: Routledge.
Witzel, M. 1997. “Macrocosm, Mesocosm, and Microcosm: The Persistent Nature of “Hindu” Beliefs and Symbolic Forms.” Intern. Journal of Hindu Studies, 1 (3): 501–39.
Witzel, M. 2004. Katha Aranyaka. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wu, K. M. 1997. On Chinese Bodily Thinking: A Cultural Hermeneutics. Leiden: Brill.