Shah Waliullah Dehlawi’s Contributions to Eschatology in His Ḥujjat Allāh al-bāligha

Document Type : Research Paper


Assistant Professor, Department of Theological Denominations, University of Religions and Denominations, Qom, 13357, Iran


One of the fundamental beliefs in Islam is the concept of resurrection and eschatology. Since the inception of Islam, this subject has been a focal point for Islamic scholars, leading to various interpretations, some of which are considered innovative. Shah Waliullah Dehlawi, a prominent figure within Deobandiyyah and an authority of Māturīdiyyah in eschatology and the afterlife, introduced significant innovations in his seminal theological work, Ḥujjat Allāh al-bāligha. This research aims to analyze and evaluate these contributions. The central question addressed is: What innovations 
did Shah Waliullah Dehlawi introduce in Ḥujjat Allāh al-bāligha regarding theology, and how can they be analyzed and evaluated? Key findings of this research include his belief in the existence of a non-elemental world where meanings and actions are manifested in appropriate forms before their earthly creation, with actions being associated with soul forms that determine punishment in both this world and the hereafter. This realm, termed the Imaginal Universe (ʿĀlm alMithāl), is perceptible to certain individuals, such as the Holy Prophet. Additionally, Shah Waliullah Dehlawi posited that God’s actions during resurrection encompass both extraordinary and ordinary actions. He also rejected the notion of eternal damnation (khulūd) for perpetrators of major sins in Hell. Furthermore, he contended that following death, a person’s experiences of suffering or pleasure will manifest in a manner most suited to their condition, disregarding intellectual concomitance. The research methodology employed in this article is descriptive and analytical.