The ‘Seal of Prophets’ Jesus, Mani, and Muḥammad

Document Type : Research Paper


Associate Professor of Philosophy Emeritus University of Central Florida Orlando, FL 32816


This investigation deals with the claim that Jesus (4 BCE), Mani (216 CE), and Muhammad (570 CE) are the 'Seal of Prophets'. It relates to the Johannine theologically developed concept of the Paraclete, since Mani and Muhammad both are claimed to be the Paraclete of Jesus and the 'Seal of Prophets. According to Matthew and John, after the death of Jesus would come no other Prophets. The historical facts, however, proved otherwise. After the death of Jesus came Mani, and then came Muhammad and both are claimed to be the 'Seal of Prophets' and the paraclete of Jesus.

Relating Jesus, Mani, and Muhammad as the 'Seal of Prophets' to the Johannine concept of the Paraclete shows that there is no clear linear historical course of an evolutionary trajectory for explaining the same fact - the 'Seal of Prophets' - for Jesus, Mani, and Muhammad. It just did not develop according the expected Johannine concept of the paraclete. For now, we can only assert that Jesus, Mani, and Muhammad are considered the 'Seal of Prophets' in the religious and cultural traditions of Christianity, Manichaeism, and Islam.


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