al-Ghazālī’s reading of the fourth Gospel

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant professor at comparative religions and mysticism, ferdowsi university of Mashhad

2 Lecturer, Hellenic Open University, Greece.


Throughout their long history of theological debates, both Christians and Muslims have studied and challenged one another’s beliefs and Scriptures. From the third/ninth century onward, Muslims have studied Holy Book and criticized Christological and Trinitarian doctrines. For them, Jesus Christ neither was God nor the Son of God, he simply was a human being like other messangers. Furthermore, they have concluded that the doctrine of Trinity violates Monotheism. Similarly, al-Ghazālī, a famous Muslim philosopher and theologian has written a treatise to challenge the divinity of Jesus. For him, since Christians based on the fourth Gospel have identified Jesus with God, he focuses on the same Gospel and interprets it in a way to nullify the divinity of Jesus. He suggests a metaphorical interpretation of the afore-mentioned Gospel, and therefore, studies all complicated verses of the Gospel in figurative terms rather than in literal meanings. By doing so, he concludes Jesus was a human being, not a divine being as Christians believe.